Плава - боја par excellence


 Аниш Капур, Без наслова 2006.
 

Свака боја је посебна, али плава је препосебна. Боја инспирације и комуникације. Боја која поседује велику визуелну моћ.

Увек актуелна, тренутно је глобална сензација. Због новог пигмента. Нове блау.
                                                  

Плава je имагинарна слика: даљине, отворености, пространства, ширине, бескраја…                                               


Корто Малтезе                                                        
                                 

Плава је више од боје. Она је визуелни симбол - мудрости, поуздања, поверења, интелигенције, вере, истине и небеса… духовности.    

Плава - то је камен лапислазули.

Сматра се да овај украсни полудраги минерал појачава душевну снагу. Најцењенији је онај из авганистанских мајдана. Ултрамарин се некада добијао од овог ретког и скупоценог камена, а данас се хемијски производи. Постојаност, његова је одлика.

Први синтетички пигмент у историји направљен је у Египту пре више од 4000 година, познат као египатско плава.

Касније су настајале и друге плаве: персијско плава, париско плава, пруско плава, церулеум, тиркиз, азурит, кобалт плава, индиго… YinMn. 

Египћани су плаву сматрали плодоносном бојом која одвраћа нечисте силе, која штити и доноси благостање. Њихови богови и краљеви су често приказивани са плавим (вештачким) брадама и перикама. Клеопатра као краљица имала је поред перике и плаве очи.


Тутанкамон и супруга


У древној Месопотамији плава боја очију (lapis lazuli) сматрана је одликом богова, док су за старе Римљане плаве очи сматране за скоро физичку ружноћу.



Времена и моде се мењају и вековима касније Доменико Модуњо пева “nel blu dipinto di blu (Volare)” о небеско плавим очима.

Стари Грци и Римљани плаву нису посебно ценили, чак су је сматрали за варварску боју која није баш пријатна за поглед. Плава одећа је сматрана безвредном. У сликарству је служила за неутралну боју позадине.

Питање боја је добрим делом условљено друштвом и идеологијом, нe само чулом вида. Грци нису ни имали реч за плаво. Египћани јесу.

Минојска култура, иако грчка, мало изражајније користи плаву коју увози из Египта.

Даме у плавом, Кносос, Крит (око 1525 - 1450 пре Хр.) данас у Архролошком музеју Хераклион на Криту


Боја и култура су увек у одређеном односу. У касној антици, а раном хришћанству, плава добија нов квалитет. Нову религиозну симболику. Еманира енергију сакралног… Појављује се на таваницама и јасно симболише небеску и божанску боју (светлост) и указује на бескрај… Постаје тамнија и самим тим мистична.

Ноћно небо, Маузолеј Гале Плацидије, V век, Равена

 

Плава постаје симбол мира, врлине и ауторитета. Зато је боја Богородице, али и Христа који се представља у плавој као небеској боји која одражава Његову божанску природу.

Плава емотивно - естетски делује на посматрача. Сугерише метафизичку реалност. Симбол је једног другог света у вечности, кроз, у Византији формирану семантику боја. Боја излучује светлост која је нематеријална, а боја као светлост суделује у божанском. На нашим средњовековним фрескама читави ансамбли су прекривени неземаљском (светлуцавом византијском) плавом, чија је изгубљена рецептура заокупљала Павића. Лапис је био драгоцен, скупљи од злата и фон је прво подсликаван црном, затим се пажљиво прелазило плавом.
 


Рођење Христово, божанствена плава (као небо над Метохијом) зографа Лонгина, око 1570, манaстир Дечани


Плава инспирише наше савремене визуелне уметнике…

Бојене скулптуре из циклуса ”Византеме” одражавају суштину и естетику Византије,

кроз српско – византијски културни круг, традицију и модерност Косте Богдановића (1930-2012).

“Реч је о предметима профане сакралности, што значи да имају појавност са зида као икона, у смислу еманципације форме и материјала”. Узвишено и лепо, ултрамарин и златна… шљива, крушка, храст…  Део су сталне поставке Музеја Цептер у Београду.  


Вибрантност плаве, континуитет идеје … плаве Екфразе Милете Продановића или плаве Ђорђа Станојевића.


Фантастични предео, Ђорђе Станојевић 2016.


Враћам се на средњи век у коме плава доживљава свој тријумф. Ђото ствара предивно плаветнило на фрескама. И камиле имају плаве очи. Са разлогом.


Адорација (Поклоњење мудраца), детаљ, плакат за изложбу


Плава постаје краљевска боја на Западу, а у ново доба, време романтизма XIX века због новоприхваћене симболике постаје боја изнад сваке. Боја напретка, светлости, снова и слободе...

Пре неколико година на једној изложби у Галерији САНУ, плава на грофу Сави Текелији (1761-1842) је оставила на мене јак визуелни утисак. 


 

Плава у издаваштву као “плаво коло” СКЗ -а из 1892. у коме се појављује као специфична голубије плава која сада и светлуца са корицама. Савршен тотал дизајн књиге (уз квалитетан садржај).


 


Плава Роксанде Илинчић у модном дизајну.

У фотографији. 


Планктони


Плава је једна од најпопуларнијих боја у (историји) уметности. Реноар је једног јутра одлучио да сенке уместо црном слика плавом. У покрету “Плави јахач” (“Der Blaue Reiter”) Марк и Кандински су волели коње и азурну. Многи сликари нису одолели и распростирали су колористику плаве: Тицијан, Гејнзбороу, Сезан, Пикасо и његова плава фаза, Хокусаи, Ван Гог, Шагал, Матис, Лубарда… до визуелних уметника и дизајнера данашњице (Derek Jarman, изложба "Blue Black", Roger Hiorns, Katharina Fritsch).


Плави прозор, Матис 1913.


Изузетан је колорит Лубардиних плавих (1907-1974). Делић тога могао je да се види на изложби “Невиђени Лубарда” у Дому Јеврема Грујића уз синергију одличне музике. Или у галерији "Canvas".
“Ја сам ја и свет сликам по својој вољи, узбуркавам море као шампањ, расклапам брегове, сликам плаве сенке у подне… “.


Зубата стена, Петар Лубарда, уље на платну, 1951.


Енергија плаве омогућава да гледамо даље и повећава перспективу споља.

Незаобилазни Ив Клајн и његова брендирана IKB (International Klein Blue) плава, коју је патентирао 1960.

Она садржи посебну смолу која наглашава осветљење. За своју уметност изражавања користио је искључиво плаву. Био је побожни католик и дивио се Ђоту. 

Сензитивност плаве користио је да сугерише духовност: “Плава нема димензију.” Кроз монохроме је желео да посматрача одвоји од стварности и одведе у другу нематеријалну стварност. Очигледан je линк ка Византији.


Скулптура Плави сунђер, Ив Клајн


Плава се повезује и са сноликим стањима, контемплацијом, самопосматрањем (самооткривањем коме нема краја…) носталгијом и чежњом.

"Big Blue".

 

Плава вуче сећање на "Плаву гробницу". Blue.


“Плава гробница” из 1917. Милутина Бојића. Са изложбе у Историјском музеју Србије, децембар 2016


Девојка у плавом, један је од најлепших портрета српског XIX века Ђуре Јакшића (1832 -1878) из 1856.

Поред познате приче о њеном настанку, о овој слици кружи једна анегдота. Наиме, један страни држаник са делегацијом разгледао је  уметничку колекцију Народног музеја и био видно одушевљен портретом. Ј.Б. Тито  је одмах наложио Лазару Трифуновићу који их је водио кроз поставку, да је спакује као поклон!?! На то, он ће пред свима, њему - само преко мене мртвог!
Тако нам је део културног наслеђа сачуван, у нади да ћемо са портретом Миле моћи да се сретнемо у догледно време.

 

Бескрајни, плави круг, и у њему звезда…

 

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